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The charts may include columns for the amount of time the task is expected to take, the amount of time actually taken, monetary or personnel resources required for the task, or earned value of the project per milestone. Another quality management tool for course progress or projects is the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle used to monitor continuous improvement. While this tool is most beneficial for a teacher for assurance of learning and course development, students can learn to use this tool to study for tests and improve during the course, particularly if the teacher offers bonus points for improvement during the semester.
Figure F depicts a simple Cycle for exam preparation. While showing this to students certainly won't ensure that students are prepared for each exam, it does make them think about the process of exam preparation. This Cycle may be connected to a Gantt chart to provide visual evidence of exam preparation. The traditional case study method used in business law courses should not necessarily be set aside, but should be augmented by quality tools that enhance student learning and retention.
The quality tools presented in this paper are, by no means, the only tools available for use in a business law class and most students learn a variety of these tools in their first operations management course. Many more tools are carefully explained in Tague's book, The Quality Toolbox, and in various print and online publications of the American Society for Quality.
Lynn and Kalfayan describe the process of barbecue using quality tools and the complexity of the process seems to tempt fate and a tortious event. One can think of countless lawsuits and product recalls that would be impressive if quality tools were applied to explain the context of and how the cases developed: The most important reason to use quality management tools to enhance business law classes is to engage students in active learning Stuckey, ; Wiemer, and deep learning Houghton, Southeast Decision Sciences Institute Proceedings February, Page 9 The expected result is that students will link new concepts to principles and experiences already known, move new concepts to long-term retention, and apply the knowledge to solving problems in new situations.
Keeping lawyers out. EHS Today. Freiesleben, J. What are quality reputations worth, Quality Progress, Gooden, R. How a good quality management system can limit lawsuits, Quality Progress, Gross, K. Process reengineering and legal education: Houghton, W. Engineering Subject Centre Guide: Learning and Teaching Theory for Engineering Academics. ISO Lambert, M. Visual learning: Lynn, L.
Documenting the process -- With a side of cole slaw, Quality Progress, Miley, F. The storytelling project: Moss, M. Rakoff, T. A case for another case method, Vanderbilt L.
Ramsden, P. Learning to teach in higher education. London, New York: Robbins, I. Best practices on "best practices": Legal education and beyond. Rooney, J. Root cause analysis for beginners, Quality Progress, Sousa, D. Is the fuss about brain research justified? Education Week. Stuckey, R. Tague, N. Viadero, D. Brain trust, Education Week, 16 5 , Weimer, M. Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice.
San Francisco: White, T. Gain a competitive edge by preventing recalls, Quality Progress, In the first configuration, one company owned or directly controlled the major portions of the supply chain and could allocate costs and benefits through transfer pricing mechanisms.
In the second configuration, companies depend on each other to achieve a smooth flow of goods and services from their origin to the ultimate consumer. The second configuration could be termed virtual integration. It is probably safe to say that most supply chains are somewhere in between the extremes described above. But where are they? How are companies dealing with the problem of moving from the security of vertical integration to the uncertainty of tightly coupled globally dispersed independent operations?
This paper describes a third configuration — a loosely coupled supply chain composed of individual entities working together in often informal relationships. Introduction One of the more difficult problems facing supply chain members is how to fairly divide responsibilities and proceeds from the supply chain operation.
In the past, individual businesses could calculate the return on investment for its own operation. In this age of supply chains, where the success of individual companies is dependent on the success of the supply chain in which they operate, there is a need to share the common pain and gain. To date, there is not a lot of evidence to indicate that companies, and supply chains, are working to share the net proceeds of their combined efforts.
However, as supply chains mature, more companies will search for ways to do it. In order to share benefits and costs, supply chain members must develop an integrated supply chain. Much of what has to be done involves supply chain learning. Unless the supply chain partners share their knowledge and understand its implications, there is little likelihood they will agree on the positive proceeds from the supply chain and how to distribute them among the members. Knowledge sharing is a necessary prelude to financial sharing.
Supply Chain Configurations Supply chains evolved from tightly coupled vertically integrated configurations to tightly coupled collaborative configurations. In the second configuration, companies depended on each other to achieve a smooth flow of goods and services from their origin to the ultimate consumer. Figure 1 shows a supply chain that moves toward the ultimate consumer through loosely coupled links that work at varying levels of effectiveness and efficiency.
It gets the job done, and the individual companies may be operating at high performance levels. The opportunities for improvement are in the inter-company links. While these improvements are real, they are difficult to evaluate.
It is even more difficult to assign credit for the individual contributors. Figure 1. Loosely Coupled Supply Chain without Uniform Directional Focus The preceding discussion showed that integrated supply chains are complex and somewhat disjointed, making sharing of proceeds difficult.
In the remainder of this paper, we describe some of the approaches used to bridge these difficulties. We first describe programs developed in the past two decades that require close supply chain relationships.
We then describe a process whereby supply chain members can attempt to determine the return on investment ROI in a supply chain. After that, we outline some possible ways in which the supply chain members can divide the net proceeds among themselves. We also discuss the role of the Southeast Decision Sciences Institute Proceedings February, Page 13 prime mover company in a supply chain, because it is likely that a single company will exert the greatest influence and, as a leader, must take responsibilities that other participants need not assume.
Inasmuch as supply chain relationships are dynamic and apt to change over time, we describe some ways in which these transition periods can be handled.
We include four case studies to provide examples of approaches to the distribution of supply chain proceeds among its members. Finally, we suggest some possible areas of future research. Programs Requiring Close Supply Chain Relationships Global competition is forcing companies to improve — or go out of business! Successful companies continue to search for some competitive advantage, whether it is in price, quality, flexibility or, more recently, in response times.
Just as they strive to reduce costs and improve quality, companies are trying to reduce the time it takes to get an order from the supplier to the customer and to get new products to the market. It is no longer good enough to be low cost and high quality; you must be responsive and flexible, too.
Some programs have evolved over the past two decades to reduce the lead times demanded by customers, mostly retailers who have tipped the balance of power from the manufacturers to retailers, such as Wal-Mart, Home Depot and Kroger.
While these programs have individual identities, they are gradually being absorbed under the umbrella of supply chain management. Programs The programs described below were designed to reduce lead times from supplier to customer. The primary thrust was to remove the excess inventories from the supply chain so the needed inventory could flow smoothly and quickly.
This faster flow provided other benefits such as reduced costs, improved quality and greater flexibility in responding to changes in volume and mix. In the early s, a group of interested manufacturers and retailers, in the textile and apparel industries, hired Kurt Salmon Associates to recommend a program that would reduce the number of stockouts at the retailers by providing a closer matching of demand and supply.
The program was to provide a way to reduce lead times for stock replenishment orders from manufacturer to retailer and reduce the lead times for introducing new products.